Renzi previously succeeded in postponing the start of his sentence, but the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled Monday that he must report to prison Friday.
Bureau of Prisons spokesman Edmond Ross says Renzi has arrived at the minimum security Federal Correctional Institution at Morgantown, West Virginia.
Renzi was convicted of conspiring to use his congressional post to make companies buy his ex-business associate's land so the associate could repay a debt to Renzi.
A Republican, Renzi represented Arizona's 1st Congressional District while serving in the U.S. House from 2003 until 2009.